Was out eating at a great place I like to dine at when all of a sudden one of my teeth shattered and it was late at night I tried calling several Dentists in Nashville from the eatery but none were open, one of the other customers eating at the same place was a Dentist and saw me holding my jaw and calling around town for Dentists and was nice enough to bring me and my date to the his office where he fixed my tooth in less than ten minutes. Was so cool of him that I figured I had to share with the world my little dental experience since he not only fixed my tooth at such a late hour of the night but he did it at cost to him which was not much. Any one looking for a cool Nashville Dentist needs to call this very cool guy Dr. Michael Vaughan
Was thinking about maybe working on some cool ideas I had been thinking about but came accross someone who was already doing it. But what I saw also made me wonder why I do not just think about inventing stuff all the time for a full time. But before I go crazy and quit my daily job and stop getting a weekly check I figured it I would need a place to keep track of all these cool ideas so figured I would start to blog about them instead of my usual stuff.
Inactive enzymes entombed in tiny honeycomb-shaped holes in silica can spring to life, scientists at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found.
The discovery came when they decided to salvage enzymes that had been in a refrigerator long past their expiration date. Enzymes are proteins that are not actually alive but come from living cells and perform chemical conversions.
To the research team’s surprise, enzymes that should have fizzled months before perked right up when entrapped in a nanomaterial called functionalized mesoporous silica, or FMS. The result points the way for exploiting these enzyme traps in food processing, decontamination, biosensor design and any other pursuit that requires controlling catalysts and sustaining their activity.
“There’s a school of thought that the reason enzymes work better in cells than in solution is because the concentration of enzymes surrounded by other biomolecules in cells is about 1,000 to 10,000 time more than in standard biochemistry lab conditions,” said Eric Ackerman, PNNL chief scientist and senior author of a related study that appears today in the journal Nanotechnology. “This crowding is thought to stabilize and keep enzymes active.”
The silica-spun FMS pores, hexagons about 30 nanometers in diameter, mimic the crowding of cells. Ackerman, lead author Chenghong Lei and colleagues said crowding is important because it induces an unfolded, free-floating protein to refold; upon refolding, it reactivates and becomes capable of catalyzing thousands of reactions a second.
The FMS is made first, and the enzymes are added later. This is important, the authors said, because other schemes for entrapping enzymes usually incorporate the material and enzymes in one harsh mixture that can cripple enzyme function forever.
In this study, the authors reported having “functionalized” the silica pores by lining them with compounds that varied depending on the enzyme to be ensnared â€” amine and carboxyl groups carrying charges opposite that of three common, off-the-shelf biocatalysts: glucose oxidase (GOX), glucose isomerase (GI) and organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH).
Picture an enzyme in solution, floating unfolded like a mop head suspended in a water bucket. When that enzyme comes into contact with a pore, the protein is pulled into place by the oppositely charged FMS and squeezed into active shape inside the pore. So loaded, the pore is now open for business; substances in the solution that come into contact with the enzyme can now be catalyzed into the desired product. For example, GI turns glucose to fructose, and standard tests for enzyme activity confirmed that FMS-GI was as potent or better at making fructose as enzyme in solution. OPH activity doubled, while GOX activity varied from 30 percent to 160 percent, suggesting that the enzyme’s orientation in the pore is important.
“It could be that in some cases the active site, the part of the enzyme that needs to be in contact with the chemical to be converted, was pointing the wrong way and pressed tightly against the walls of the pore,” Ackerman said.
To show that the enzymes were trapped inside the FMS pores, the team stained the protein-FMS complex with gold nanoparticles and documented the enzyme-in-pore complex through electron microscopy. A spectroscopic analysis of the proteins squeezed into their active conformation turned up no new folds, evidence that they had neatly refolded rather than been forcibly wadded into the pore.
Researchers are developing smart “nanocarriers” for drug delivery and diagnostics.
By Kevin Bullis
Using parts of living cells in a smart nanotechnology-based system, researchers in Switzerland have demonstrated a “nanocarrier” that can target specific types of cells and light up in response to conditions in their immediate environment.
The work is part of a growing effort by scientists worldwide to develop nano devices that can circulate in the bloodstream, slip stealthily past the body’s immune system, attach to cancer or inflammatory cells (an important ability in diseases such as atherosclerosis and arthritis), and deliver a deadly drug payload–destroying some of the toughest diseases without the often debilitating side effects that can accompany chemotherapy (see “Nanomedicine”).
Already, early versions of such nano-based treatments have been approved for breast cancer. But Patrick Hunziker, a physician at University Hospital Basel, and Wolfgang Meier, professor of chemistry at the University of Basel, are attempting to trigger the release of the drugs at more precise locations and at release rates adjusted to have the most effect on a particular disease.
Was surfing by Yahoo the other day and ran accross a video from the 9 spot from Yahoo television featuring an electric sports car called Tesla. After watching the video I understood why this makes sense, the car emits nothing from the tail pipe and burns no fossils fuels, and if your like me and use solar panels then the sun would charge it up meaning no more gas. The company founded by the same man who made paypal and some other Silicon Valley big wigs. As always click on the headline link to see the full story.